Leonardo BERNARD 

Leonardo Bernard

Phone number: 0242215023
Office: Australian National Centre for Ocean Resources and Security (ANCORS), ITAMS, University of Wollongong, NSW, 2522, Australia 

Degree Program: Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 

PhD Thesis Title: Exploring the Relationship between the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Shelf 

Clive Schofield, Professor, Director of Research, ANCORS
Stuart Kaye, Professor, Director, ANCORS 


Leonardo Bernard was a Research Fellow with the Centre for International Law (CIL), National University of Singapore (NUS), where he focused on international law and maritime boundaries disputes. Prior to joining CIL, he worked for one of the largest law firms in Singapore, specializing in competition law, in which he was involved in various notifications to the Competition Commission of Singapore (CCS) of co-operative agreements between competitors and advising clients in investigations initiated by the CCS, as well as assisted in various corporate matters including advising on contract laws, environmental laws and trade laws. He holds an LLB from Universitas Indonesia and an LLM from the National University of Singapore. 

Leo has researched and written extensively on maritime boundary issues, South China Sea disputes and on the application of historic rights under international law. His paper on ‘The Effect of Fisheries on Maritime Boundary Delimitation’ was awarded the Law of the Sea Institute (LOSI) Research Competition Award for Early Career Researchers in 2012. He has been invited to present his research not only in Singapore, but also in the USA, Australia, Japan, Malaysia, Indonesia, South Korea and China. Leo was also involved in the editing of the books ‘Beyond Territorial Disputes in the South China Sea: Legal Framework for the Joint Development of Hydrocarbon Resources’ and ‘The South China Sea Disputes and the Law of the Sea’, both are part of the CIL International Law book series. 

Research interests:

  • Law of the Sea
  • South China Sea
  • Maritime Boundaries Delimitation
  • Continental Shelf
  • International Dispute Resolution
  • Historic Rights
  • General Public International Law

Selected Publications

Journal Publications

  • BERNARD, Leonardo.‘The Right to Fish and International Law in the South China Sea’. Journal of Political Risk (2016) 4(1).
  • BERNARD, Leonardo and LEE, Seokwoo, "West Sea Special Zone between South Korea and North Korea - Any Role for Joint Development of the South China Sea?”, Korean Journal of International and Comparative Law, 3 (2015): 0-37. 
  • BERNARD, Leonardo and EWING-CHOW, Michael. ‘A Rising Tide: Law of the Sea Disputes in Asia and Arbitration’. Asian Dispute Review, July 2014, Lexis Nexis, Hong Kong, pp. 114-119.
  • BERNARD, Leonardo. ‘Whose Side Is It On: The Boundaries Dispute In The North Malacca Strait’. Indonesian Journal of International Law, 9, no. 3 (ASEAN’S Role in Sustainable Development) (2012): 381-408. (Indonesia).

Book Chapters

  • LEONARDO, B, “The Cooperative Mechanism in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore”. In Freedom of Navigation and Globalization, ed. Myron H. Nordquist, John Norton Moore, Robert C. Beckman, Ronan Long, 196-217. Center for Ocean Law and Policy, vol. 18, ed. Myron H. Nordquist, John Norton Moore. Leiden: Brill Nijhoff, 2014.
  • LEONARDO, B, ‘The Effect of Historic Fishing Rights in Maritime Boundaries Delimitation’. In Securing the Ocean for the Next Generation, ed. Harry N. Scheiber and Moon Sang Kwon, 327-354. Berkeley: Berkeley Law School, 2013.
  • BERNARD, Leonardo. ‘The Role of Islands on Maritime Boundaries Delimitation: A Look at the Bangladesh/Myanmar Case’, 30 Years of UNCLOS (1982-2012): Progress and Prospects, Guifang (Julia) Xue & Ashley White, eds, China University of Political Science and Law, Beijing, October 2013, pp. 240-259.
  • Beckman R C and B LEONARDO, ‘The use of PSSAs in the South China Sea’ In Securing the Safety of Navigation in East Asia: Legal and Political Dimensions, eds Shicun Wu and Keyuan Zou, 245-257. Oxford: Chandos Publishing, 2013.


  • LEONARDO, B, “Historic Fishing Rights and the Nine-Dash Line (A Response to PacNet #88)”. In PacNet Number 3, Pacific Forum CSIS, Honolulu, Hawaii, 7 Jan 2015. 


Last reviewed: 9 August, 2018